The main syndromes and stages of alcoholism

The disease is characterized by mental disorders, disorders of all organs and systems and, mainly, from the Central nervous system. There are changes of personality with a tendency to degradation, sharp decrease in working capacity.

Clinical course of alcoholism, like any other disease, inherent to the stage. The moment of transition of alcohol dependence from one stage to another, more difficult to define precisely is extremely difficult. But it is possible to highlight the most characteristic of the disease syndromes that can be expressed to a greater or lesser extent, but always have a place in the clinic of alcoholism.

I. Pathological attraction to alcohol.

It may be different. His nature is still not fully understood. Decided to allocate 2 kinds of craving:

1) the Primary attraction is not associated with the presence in humans of ethyl alcohol. It is equivalent to psychological dependence. And in the early stages of the disease occurs in humans only in certain circumstances. Most often these are situations, which always include the meal with alcohol.

In anticipation of the upcoming holiday, outings or make a major purchase a person experiences the desire to feel the taste of alcohol and looked forward to the coming time. However, he becomes overly active, does not hide the desire to participate in the preparation of the event, aims to eliminate "but", which can distort the course leading to drinking events.

syndromes alcoholism

The mood in alcoholic patients (alcoholic) at this time elated, he even seems a little excited. Dominant place in the brain take the thought of alcohol.

The person remembers what was unforgettable euphoria, in which he dwelt during the previous drink. Then everything seemed fine, and behind like wings. And how I want again and again to enjoy this carefree condition.

The mere anticipation of the holiday creates a smile on the face, and the need to wait a couple of days, for example, until Friday about the decline of mood. Appear autonomic dysfunction, especially pronounced before eating: copious salivation, a sense of being sucked "in his stomach," involuntary swallowing. The primary attraction to alcohol is accepted to allocate to species subject to certain criteria:

  • severity – light to medium;
  • on the possibility of its overcoming – to overcome and insurmountable;
  • is periodic and continuous;
  • at the current moment – spontaneous and due to some factors;
  • for scale – total and partial.

The primary attraction to alcohol can occur at all stages of the disease. But if at the initial stage the patient is still able to look forward to, as the progression of alcohol dependence, the situation changes. Only the desire to drink instantly reaches its climax and also instantly satisfied. To prevent it sometimes not in forces no one and nothing.

2). secondary attraction to alcohol due to the receipt in the human body occurs and ethanol, respectively, in a drunken state. Mechanism of what is happening can be presented in the form of a chain: the first drink a dose of a strong desire to continue the subsequent doses – increasing drunkenness with loss of control – morning "hangover" – the desire to drink another dose of the growing desire ... And as you can see, the chain is not a chain, and a vicious circle. And withdrew it when the man wasn't just a small dose of alcohol and lost control over the amount consumed.

Between the terms "secondary attraction to alcohol" and "pathological attraction to alcohol intoxication" are usually equated. Such attachment can occur at all stages of alcohol addiction, causing over time an increasingly serious consequences.

II. Hangover or withdrawal symptoms.

Develops after abuse of alcohol the next morning. There is a General physical weakness, headache, depressed mood, guilt. Concerned about the sweating, palpitations, nausea, trembling fingers.


An irresistible urge to "improve health" makes drink "therapeutic dose", and then noted some improvement in health. But soon the hangover returns, but it is much harder and painful. And if first withdrawal only makes itself known only in the form of vegetative symptoms, then eventually join them and mental disorders.

III. The syndrome of altered reactivity.

Have a budding alcoholic overdose include protective reactions: vomiting, aversion to alcohol. An alcoholic with a long experience "put to sleep" their protection, therefore, is free to drink all the time and "horse" doses, sometimes remembering absolutely nothing of what happened before, during drinking.

IV. The syndrome of mental dependence.

Manifested an obsessive craving for alcohol. Being sober, the alcoholic feels uncomfortable. But when he was drunk as a fish abides in water.

V. the Syndrome of physical dependence.

Is the improvement of all physical functions of the body in a state of alcoholic intoxication.

VI. Syndrome complications.

Complications represent the effects of the constant and long-lasting intoxication with alcohol. The syndrome is expressed in the disruption of all organs and systems of the body, in the emergence of mental disorders and problems of the social plan.

Stage of alcoholism

1. The first stage

In the initial stages of the first stage of alcoholism, people drink alcohol occasionally, controls the amount of alcohol consumed, may be time to stop. The next day wakes up as if nothing had happened, in full health. Any accidental overdose of alcohol is accompanied by vomiting, and cause aversion to alcohol. The next morning even a single reminder of the events of yesterday causes nausea and dizziness.

But the primary attraction is already present. Eventually all the unpleasant things are forgotten, and the anticipation of another fun and improves vitality. But in sober anticipation and the mood drops to zero, and overcomes boredom and dissatisfaction with some troubles.

Imperceptibly, but vomiting rarely comes to the aid of the poisoned body, and drink easier and easier. The dose consumed over time alcohol can increase 4-5 times, but to stop is impossible. Thirsty more and more. And the person is able to drink daily, and alcohol also increases the tone of the body while maintaining its sedative properties.

A morning person sometimes has trouble remembering where, when and with whom. Head hurts, heart jumping out of my chest, even a SIP of clean water causes nausea, hands shaking and scared to go outside. But he knows how to "fix your head" as "restore" his health. And he first hangover, pouring himself a dose, then second, third...

Remember that this moment, this exact dose is the barrier level above which an alcoholic gives the start of the second stage of the disease.

2. The second stage

In the second stage of alcoholism, the body is so adapted to alcohol that is able to withstand the dose, which could lead to the death of a man who doesn't drink. Alcoholic drinks almost daily. Breaks happen, but they are caused by, for example, lack of money, need to go to work, threat of divorce and other external factors. This so-called pseudo binges.

Binges pseudo – distinctive symptom of the second stage, when in all its "glory" manifested syndromes of mental and physical dependence, and craving, and withdrawal.

Sedative effect of the alcohol completely fades, only activating the effect. Complete amnesia of the last phase of intoxication is becoming commonplace, despite the fact that the behavior of the alcoholic during this phase remains well ordered.

Mental and physical well-being of the patient is absolutely dependent on the presence or absence of ethanol in the blood. Sober alcoholic is not able to work, cannot concentrate and to Express their thoughts. He's despondent, depressed, apathetic. But it is worth it just to "get high", as it dramatically improves mood, physical functions return to normal. An alcoholic active, cheerful and active.

At this stage of the disease regular poisoning of the body and, as a consequence of, his chronic intoxication, declare themselves in full voice changes in mental health. Markedly reduced intelligence, memory worsens, job skills, starts degradation of the individual. Often marked delirium, which is a danger not only for the patient but also for his entourage. In the neurological status of the identified visual impairment, hearing impairment, sensory disorders, neuritis, disorders of coordination of movements.

3. The third stage

For the third stage of alcoholism characteristic of true binges. But the body is no longer able to tolerate the previous dose of alcohol. To achieve the habitual intoxication now requires less amount of alcohol. The activating effect is practically absent.

Amnesia becomes the integral attribute of the binge. A lot of daytime drinking leads to mental & physical exhaustion. But uncontrollable craving for alcohol takes over and often the lack of control the amount of alcohol consumed in combination with a dramatically reduced tolerance to alcohol lead to fatal overdoses.

The alcoholic loses the ability to control the situation, he is not able to be critical of yourself. Can drink anywhere, with anyone and anything.

quam ut subsisto

Very rarely the patient can stop and stop the bout. It is usually necessary to enlist the help of a psychiatrist and psychologist. The joint efforts of doctors and relatives give a start to a more or less prolonged period of sobriety, on which the change comes a new multi-day binge.

At this stage of alcoholism as a result of heavy poisoning of an organism evolve organic affection of many internal organs. Alcoholics have revealed cardiopathy, liver, kidneys, brain and other organs. Patients emotionally unstable, violent, aggressive. Often they develop alcoholic psychoses, delirium. As a result of "decomposition" of a person and changes appearance.

Alcoholism is a terrible disease that requires immediate treatment. Otherwise, like any disease, alcoholism will progress. And replace each stage will inevitably come next, more difficult and dangerous.